Masonry Fireplace Testing Protocol Northern Sonoma County APCD Healdsburg, California District Revison of 3/13/02 Version Rec¹d from OMNI as 06-13-02Rev.doc on 7/16/03. Revision Date: March 13August 19, 2002 Table of Contents PART I FIGURES 126.96.36.199 Schematic Diagram of Emissions Sampling System (ESS) 8 188.8.131.52 Flue-Gas Sampling Train 11 184.108.40.206 Flue-Gas Incinerator Sampling Train 12 220.127.116.11a ESS Emissions Results Summary Table Example 1 35 18.104.22.168b ESS Emissions Results Summary Table Example 2 36 22.214.171.124.1 Masonry Fireplace Test Protocol Reporting Requirements Checklist 39 TABLES 4.4.1 Nominal Calibrations-Gas Constituent Levels 14 4.4.2 Required Incinerator Performance-Gas Compositions and Concentrations 15 4.11.2 Acceptance Criteria for CO2 Concentration Measurements 27 FIREPLACE TESTING PROTOCOL Northern Sonoma County-APCD, Healdsburg, California 1.0 SCOPE. This protocol contains the testing requirements for masonry fireplaces as defined and set forth in Regulation 4 of the NSCAPCD. It includes the reporting procedures that must be followed, laboratory certification requirements, the fireplace operating procedures that must be followed during testing, and the sampling methods that must be used for measuring particulate emissions. The document also contains information on how to obtain fireplace thermal performance. In the event of conflict between this protocol and language in Regulation 4 the language in Regulation 4 and established District policies shall prevail. 2.0 DEFINITIONS. For the purpose of this protocol, certain terms are defined as follows: 2.1 Analyzer Calibration Error. The difference between the gas concentration exhibited by the gas analyzer and the known concentration of the calibration gas when the calibration gas is introduced directly to the analyzer. 2.2 Approved Masonry Fireplace. A masonry fireplace that meets the certification and emission standards of NSCAPCD Regulation 4 when tested in accordance with this protocol. 2.3 Burn Rate. The average rate at which test-fuel is consumed in a fireplace during a test-burn period measured in kilograms of wood (dry basis) burned per hour (kg/hour). 2.4 Calibration Drift. The difference in the analyzer reading from the initial calibration response at a mid-range calibration value after a stated period of operation during which no maintenance, repair, or adjustment took place. 2.5 Calibration Gas. A known concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), or oxygen (O2) in nitrogen (N2). 2.6 Certification or Certification Audit Test. The completion of at least one, three-fuel-load test-burn or test period in accordance with the fireplace operating and sampling procedures of this protocol. . 2.7 Effective Flue-Gas Duct/Chimney Diameter. The effective chimney diameter of a circular flue-gas duct is the actual diameter. The effective diameter (ED) of a rectangular flue-gas duct is determined using the following equation: ED = 2 x (L x W) / (L + W) Where: L = Flue rectangular length W = Flue rectangular width 2.8 Firebox. The chamber in the fireplace in which test-fuel charges are placed and burned. 2.9 Masonry Fireplaces. Those wood-fired appliances as defined in NSCAPCD Regulation 4 which: … Are exempt from Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 60, Subpart AAA, … Have useable firebox volumes (as defined in 40CFR60, Subpart AAA) of less than 20 cubic feet, and … Are not cook stoves, boilers, furnaces, or pellet stoves as defined in 40CFR60, Subpart AAA. 2.10 Fireplace Design. The construction and/or fabrication specifications including all dimensions and materials required for manufacturing or building a fireplace. 2.11 Fireplace Hearth. The firebox floor area, within the firebox of a fireplace upon which a fire may be, or is intended to be built (see Section 2.27). 2.12 Fireplace Model Line. A series of fireplace models which all have the same internal assembly, including flue-gas exhaust ducting and grate height above hearth. Each model in a model line can have different facade designs and external decorative features. 2.13 Flue-Gas Exhaust Duct. The connector pipe, chimney, or other duct form that conveys exhaust gases from the firebox to the atmosphere. For purposes of model line approval by the NSCAPCD, the flue-gas exhaust duct is considered to be a component of a fireplace model line configuration. Flue-gas exhaust duct cross-sectional area is calculated using duct dimensions measured at the narrowest point downstream from the horizontal plane which intersects the top most edge of the firebox. 2.14 Grate Height Above Hearth. A measure of the vertical distance between the hearth floor and the bottom of a grate. It is the space under which and through which combustion air can pass into the fuel load being supported by the grate. For purposes of model line approval by the NSCAPCD, the grate height above the hearth is considered to be a component of a fireplace model line configuration. 2.15 Hearth Grate. A non-combustible structure capable of elevating and supporting the required fuel load above the hearth of a fireplace while offering no impedance to the passage of combustion air up to and through the fuel load. 2.16 Internal Assembly. The core construction, firebox design, and flue gas exhaust duct, which produce the same combustion function, particulate emissions factor, and particulate emissions rate of a fireplace model line. 2.17 Maximum Flue-Gas Carbon Dioxide plus Carbon Monoxide Concentration. The highest recorded concentration of carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide above the baseline ambient air supply carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration (i.e., 0.05% for this standard) that occurs during the burning of a test-fuel load. 2.18 Pretest Flue-Gas Temperature. The temperature measured at the primary flue-gas sampling and measurement location one hour after a test fireplace is closed in accordance with Section 4.8.2. 2.19 Response Time. The amount of time required for a gas sampling and measurement system to respond and display 90% of a step change in gas concentration. 2.20 Sampling System Bias. The difference between the gas concentrations displayed by an analyzer when a gas of known concentration is introduced at the inlet of the sampling probe and the gas concentration displayed when the gas of known concentration is introduced directly to the analyzer. 2.21 Span. The upper limit of the gas concentration measurement range (see Section 4.3.13). 2.22 Test Period. The time required to consume at least 90% of the mass of three consecutively burned test-fuel loads. 2.23 Test Facility. The building enclosure in which the fireplace is installed, operated, and sampled for emissions. 2.24 Test-Fuel Loading Factor. The factor is 7.0 wet-weight pounds of test fuel per square foot (0.30 kg/m2) of usable fireplace hearth area. 2.25 Thermal Efficiency. 2.25.1 Combustion Efficiency. A measure of the completeness of the chemical oxidizing and reducing reactions taking place within the fuel and between the fuel and oxygen during combustion. Combustion efficiency is expressed as the percentage of the total heat potential of the fuel which is converted to heat energy. 2.25.2 Heat Transfer Efficiency. A measure of how much of the heat produced by the chemical combustion reaction processes is transferred from a firebox into the mass of the fireplace and/or into the room in which the fireplace is located. Heat transfer efficiency is expressed as a percentage of the heat produced in the firebox and transferred into the mass of the fireplace and/or the room in which the fireplace is located. 2.25.3 Overall Thermal Efficiency. A measure of how much of the heat potential of fuel is absorbed into the mass of the fireplace and/or reaches the room in which the fireplace is located. It is expressed as that percentage of the total heat potential of the fuel absorbed into the mass of the fireplace and/or reaches the room in which the fireplace is located. Overall thermal efficiency is calculated as the multiplication product of the measured combustion efficiency and the measured heat transfer efficiency of a fireplace. 2.26 Usable Firebox or Hearth Area. The firebox floor (or hearth) area, is the area within the fire chamber of a fireplace upon which a fire may be, or is intended to be built. Usable firebox area is calculated using the following definitions: 2.26.1 Length. The longest horizontal fire chamber dimension along the floor of the firebox that is parallel to a wall of the fire chamber. 2.26.2 Width or Depth. The shortest horizontal fire chamber dimension along the floor of the firebox that is parallel to a sidewall of the fire chamber. 2.26.3 Angled/Curved Firebox Walls/Sides. For angled or curved firebox walls and/or sides, the effective usable firebox area shall be determined by calculating the sum of standard geometric areas or sub-areas of the firebox floor capable of supporting fuel load mass. 2.26.4 No Sidewalls. If there are no fire chamber sidewalls, the hearth area shall be defined as that area made by a projection of the outer extremities of the exhaust flue-gas overhead collection hood on the hearth floor. 2.26.5 Fireplace Grates. Fireplace grates are required for purposes of this testing protocol unless otherwise determined in advance of testing by the NSCAPCD. Grates shall have sufficient size and strength for holding the required fuel load far enough above the hearth to facilitate placement of sufficient paper and kindling to adequately ignite the initial fuel load. 2.27 Zero Drift. The difference between the initial gas analyzer calibration response at a zero concentration level and the calibration response at the zero concentration level after a stated period of instrument operation during which no maintenance, repair, or adjustment took place. 3.0 TEST LABORATORY ACCREDITATION. All testing, test reporting, and inspection requirements shall be conducted by a Northern Sonoma-APCD-accredited testing laboratory. 3.1 Laboratory Accreditation Requirements. In order to qualify for Northern Sonoma-APCD accreditation, the test laboratory shall be accredited by: 3.1.1 U.S. EPA Accreditation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for testing wood-burning residential space heaters in accordance with 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart AAA, Section 60.535, and 3.1.2 ISO Accreditation. An Accrediting Body Evaluation Program (ABEP)-approved accreditation organization to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025, General Requirements for The Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories: 1999(E). The ABEP-approved accreditation organization shall meet the requirements of the ISO Guide 58 standard for General Requirements for Accreditation Organizations. (Note: ABEP is a program of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)), and 3.1.3 CARB Accreditation. The California Air Resources Board as an Approved Independent Contractor for conducting compliance testing for particulate emissions pursuant to Section 91207, Title 17, California Code of Regulations. 3.2 Accreditation Application Requirements. The Northern Sonoma-APCD may approve a qualified test laboratory for accreditation upon submittal of the following information: 3.2.1 U. S. EPA Accreditation Certificate. A copy of the laboratory's current U.S. EPA accreditation certificate. 3.2.2 ISO Accreditation Certificate. A copy of the laboratory's current ABEP-approved accreditation organization certification to ISO/IEC 17025 requirements. 3.2.3 Laboratory Information. A description of the laboratory test facilities, test equipment, and test-personnel qualifications including education and work experience. 3.2.4 Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manual. A copy of the laboratory's Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manual written in conformance with the ISO/IEC 17025. 3.2.5 Example Test Report. An example fireplace test report prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements. The report must show actual information where possible for the equipment, personnel, data-sheet and data-table forms, and calibration records that will be utilized for actual fireplace approval applications. 3.3 Northern Sonoma-APCD Accredited Laboratory Updates. A Northern Sonoma-APCD accredited test laboratory shall update information requirements contained in Section 3.2 within 30 days of any change in laboratory facilities or test personnel but not less than on an annual basis after the initial Northern Sonoma-APCD accreditation. 3.4 Northern Sonoma-APCD Accreditation Revocation. The Northern Sonoma-APCD may revoke test laboratory accreditations when the Northern Sonoma-APCD determines that the test laboratory is: … No longer accredited by the U.S. EPA, or … No longer accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 by an ABEP-approved accreditation organization, or … No longer accredited by the California Air Resources Board for performing particulate emissions testing, or … Has not adhered to the quality assurance, testing, record keeping, or reporting requirements. 4.0 TESTING. 4.1 Applicability. The methods described in this section are applicable to establishing particulate emission rates, carbon monoxide emission rates, and thermal efficiency for wood-burning fireplaces. 4.1.1 Alternative Sampling Systems. Upon approval by the NSCAPCD, qualified alternative emissions sampling and/or thermal efficiency measuring methods may be used as equivalent methods to those described in this protocol. To qualify as equivalent, a candidate alternative method(s) shall be performed by a NSCAPCD approved laboratory in accordance with the U.S. EPA Method 301, ³Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media² (Federal Register, December 12, 1992, Volume 57, Number 250, page 11998). In order to qualify for alternative sampling system approval, the results of the qualifying tests shall comply with the U.S. EPA field validation acceptance criteria. 4.2 Principle. Emissions and thermal efficiency measurements are performed on a fireplace installed and operated in accordance with the specific methods of this protocol. 4.2.1 Emissions. Emissions are sampled from fireplace flue gases using an emission sampling system (ESS) described in Section 4.3.11. The ESS draws a constant-flow flue-gas sample stream for determining non-volatile as well as semi-volatile particulate emissions. Sampled fireplace flue gases are also analyzed for oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations for use in the determination of flue-gas flow rates, emission factors, emission rates and overall thermal efficiency. In addition to the ESS sampling system a U.S. EPA Method 5H (40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A) sampling system is to be run concurrently with the ESS. The sample probes and sensors for the Method 5H sample train are to be co-located as close as possible to their counterparts in the ESS sample train without causing intereference. All required procedures and steps snecessary to conduct the Method 5H sampling shall be done in accordance with the procedures set forth in 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix A. 126.96.36.199 Flue-Gas Sampling Process. The flue-gas sample stream shall travel through the heated sample line and through a heated U.S. EPA Method 5-type glass fiber filter (40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A) for collection of particulate matter. The filter shall be followed by a cooled, in-line flow-through cartridge containing 20 to 25 grams of XAD-2 sorbent resin for collecting semi-volatile hydrocarbons. Excess water vapor shall be then removed from the flue-gas sample stream by a cooled condensate trap with a volume of no more than 100 ml. The XAD-2 cartridge and the condensate trap shall be maintained in the temperature range between 40 to 50°F (4 to 10°C) during all sampling periods. Flue-gas oxygen concentrations shall be measured within the ESS system by a gas analyzer meeting the performance specifications presented in Section 4.3.13 of this protocol. 4.2.2 Thermal Efficiency. Overall fireplace thermal efficiency is determined by measuring flue-gas chemical, sensible, and latent heat losses. The higher-heating value of carbon monoxide is used to represent total chemical losses (i.e., incompletely burned volatile, semi-volatile, and solid carbonaceous materials). Direct temperature measurements and calculated flue-gas moisture content are used to determine sensible and latent heat losses. 188.8.131.52 Thermal Efficiency Sampling. For the measurement of efficiency, two gaseous samples are collected concurrently and continuously throughout a test period. One sample is withdrawn directly from the fireplace flue/chimney. The second sample is withdrawn after raw flue-gas has passed through an incinerator that oxidizes combustible gases. After a test period is completed, the CO2 concentration in each gas sample is measured. 184.108.40.206.1 Chemical Energy Losses. Chemical energy losses are determined by using an estimated combustibles heating-value equal to the higher heating-value of the fuel and the amount of incompletely combusted elemental carbon and hydrocarbon materials. The incompletely combusted materials are represented by the difference in molar CO2 concentrations between the incinerated and non-incinerated flue-gas samples. 220.127.116.11.2 Sensible Energy Losses. Sensible energy losses are determined using flue-gas temperature and flue-gas flow. Total flue-gas flow is calculated by using the fuel-carbon/flue-gas-carbon balance relationship. 18.104.22.168.3 Latent Energy Losses. Latent energy losses are determined as a theoretical latent loss, as if combustion were complete. 22.214.171.124 Total Losses. Once all of the energy losses are determined, the method-defined overall thermal energy efficiency of the fireplace is calculated as that portion of total fuel energy input not lost through the flue/chimney exhaust system during the test period. 4.3 Test Apparatus. The following test apparatus is required to facilitate the performance of the emissions sampling and thermal efficiency measurement procedures contained in this protocol: 4.3.1 Fireplace and Flue-Gas Temperature Sensors. Device(s) capable of measuring flue-gas temperature to within 1.0% of expected absolute temperature values. These monitors are to be sited in accordance with Sections 4.6.2 through 4.6.4. 4.3.2 Test Facility Temperature Sensor. A device located centrally in a vertically oriented pipe-shield 6 inches (150 mm) long and 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter that is open at both ends and capable of measuring air temperature to within 1.0% of expected absolute temperature values. These monitors are to be sited in accordance with Section 4.8.10. 4.3.3 Analytical Balance. An analytical balance capable of weighing sample filters, and sorbent-resin and equipment-rinse particulate residues to the nearest 0.1 mg. 4.3.4 Desiccator. A desiccator for maintaining all particulate sample residues at constant room temperature and the relative humidity levels required in 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A, Method 5. 4.3.5 Soxhlet Extractors. Soxhlet extractors for extracting semi-volatile particulate emission residues from XAD-2 sorbent-resin. 4.3.6 Scale. Electronic strain-gauge scale capable of accurately weighing test-fuel charge(s) to within 0.1 pound (0.05 kg). 4.3.7 Wood-Fuel Moisture Meter. Calibrated electrical resistance meter for measuring test-fuel moisture to within 1% moisture content (dry basis). 4.3.8 Anemometer. Device capable of detecting air velocities of less than 20 feet/minute (0.10 meters/second), for measuring air velocities near the fireplace being tested. 4.3.9 Barometer. Mercury barometer, capable of measuring atmospheric pressure to within 0.1-inch (2.5 mm) of mercury. 4.3.10 Draft Gauge. Electro-manometer or inclined liquid manometer for the determination of flue/chimney draft (i.e., static pressure) readable to within 0.01 inches of water column (0.50 Pa). 4.3.11 Emissions Sampling System (ESS). Figure 126.96.36.199 shows a schematic diagram of an ESS used for sampling wood-fired fireplace emissions. The ESS shall consist of the following component specifications. 188.8.131.52 Flue-Gas Sample Probe. The ESS shall draw flue gases through a 3/8-inch (10 mm) O.D. stainless steel probe long enough to reach the center of the flue/chimney at the primary flue-gas sampling and measurement location as specified in Section 4.6.2. The probe shall be fitted with a stainless steel 3/8-inch (10 mm) diameter leading edge, buttonhook nozzle to provide a 90-degree turn of the probe into the direction from which the flue-gas stream flows. 184.108.40.206 Heated Sampling Line. A heated 3/8-inch (10 mm) O.D. Teflon® sampling line, not to exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters), shall be used to make the connection between the stainless-steel sampling probe and the ESS. Non-heated 3/8-inch (10 mm) O.D. Teflon® tubing shall be used to make all of the other necessary ESS connections upstream from the XAD-2 cartridge as shown in Figure 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168 Sample Flow Control. The ESS shall use a critical orifice to maintain a nominal flue-gas sampling rate in the range of 0.035 cfm (1.0 liter per minute) to 0.177 cfm (5 liters per minute) ±10%. 22.214.171.124 Flue-Gas Sub-Sample Collection. A constantly proportional sub-sample of the flue-gas sample stream exiting the ESS unit, shall be pumped into a 5 cubic-foot (140-liter minimum-size) gas sampling bag for the measurement of the average carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations and confirmation of average ESS-measured oxygen concentrations for the test period. 4.3.12 Flue-Gas and Incinerated Flue-Gas Sampling Trains. The thermal efficiency measurement flue-gas sampling trains (Figures 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52) consist of the following components: 184.108.40.206 Flue-Gas Sample Probe. The sampling trains shall draw flue gases through a 3/8-inch (10 mm) O.D. stainless steel probe long enough to reach the center of the flue/chimney at the primary flue-gas sampling and measurement location as specified in Section 4.6.2. The probe shall be fitted with a stainless steel 3/8-inch (10 mm) diameter leading edge, buttonhook nozzle to provide a 90-degree turn of the probe into the direction from which the flue-gas stream flows. 220.127.116.11 Heated Sampling Line. A heated 3/8-inch (10 mm) O.D. Teflon® sampling line, not to exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters), shall be used to make the connection between the stainless-steel sampling probe and the ESS. Connection between the furnace and cooler should be made with either quartz or borosilicate glass. Non-heated 3/8-inch (10 mm) O.D. Teflon® tubing shall be used to make all of the other necessary connections upstream from the XAD-2 cartridge. 18.104.22.168 Incinerator. The incinerator is a tube furnace capable of maintaining a continuous minimum temperature of 1202°F (650°C) in a flow-through 150 ml quartz tube. The tube shall contain catalyst-coated ceramic beads or pellets. During the collection of samples for measuring efficiency the incinerator system shall provide a minimum sample-gas residence time in the heated incinerator tube of 2 seconds. Incinerator performance specifications are as follows: 22.214.171.124.1 Zero-Gas Response. When CO2-free air is passed through the incinerator sampling train (introduced at the sample probe/nozzle end), at a flow rate that is plus or minus 20% of the flow rate used during sampling in accordance with Section 4.8.6 the CO2 concentration at the output of the incinerator shall be less than 0.05%. 126.96.36.199.2 Mid-Range Gas Response. When mid-level incinerator-check gas is passed through the incinerator, at a flow rate that is plus or minus 20% of the flow rate used during sampling, the measured change in CO2 concentrations shall be at least 90% of the theoretical value, based upon the actual composition of the mid-level incinerator-check gas used. Note: Ninety percent oxidation of the combustible carbon in a mid-level incinerator-check gas is considered adequate for the following two reasons: … Methane is substantially harder to oxidize than CO and most other hydrocarbons found in wood smoke. Thus, a 90% oxidation efficiency for a calibration gas whose combustible carbon is approximately half-methane would correspond to a higher conversion efficiency for actual wood smoke. … If, in actual use in wood-fired appliance testing, the incinerator's conversion efficiency is 90%, the resulting error in overall energy efficiency will be less than 2% for combustion efficiencies of 80% or more. Most appliances that comply or nearly comply with particulate emission regulations will have combustion efficiencies higher than 90%, and hence, smaller potential errors in overall efficiency. 188.8.131.52 Flow Meter. Rotameter with flow-control valve in the 0 to 1.0 cubic-foot per hour (0 to 500 ml per minute) range. 184.108.40.206 Condenser/Dryer. At least two, low-volume (i.e., less than 100 ml total volume) midget glass impingers. 220.127.116.11 Filter. An in-line filter is used to remove solids and condensable materials from the sampled flue-gas stream. The filter can be fiberglass or glass wool. Disposable filter cartridges may also be used. 18.104.22.168 Lung-Sampler Enclosure with Evacuation Pump. Lung sampler enclosure with a volume of approximately 2 to 3 cubic feet (57 to 85 liters) with an evacuation pump capable of pumping 0.42 to 0.53 cubic feet/hr (12 to 15 l/hr). 22.214.171.124.1 Gas Sample Bag. The lung sampler shall utilize a gas sample bag (Tedlar® recommended) of 2 cubic-foot (50 liter) minimum size equipped with a screw type inlet/outlet port valve. 126.96.36.199 Pressure Fluctuation Dampener (optional). A glass flask or similar device about 200 ml in size may be placed in the sample line between the sample pump and the flow meter to reduce pressure fluctuations in the sample line due to pump compression and vacuum cycle pressure changes. 188.8.131.52 Vacuum Gages. Vacuum gage with a range of 0 to 30 inches of mercury. 184.108.40.206 Three-Way Valve. For purging and evacuating gas sample bags, for isolating the sample bag once evacuated, and for permitting withdrawal of sample from the bag for analysis. 220.127.116.11 Tees and Valves (optional). To permit withdrawal of a portion of the gas-sample stream during a test period for optional, on-line, real time instrumental analysis of carbon dioxide. 4.3.13 Gas Analyzers. A combustion gas analyzer for measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) in the range of 0.0 to 20.0%, carbon monoxide (CO) in the range of 0.00 to 5.00%, and oxygen (O2) in the range of 0.0 to 25.0% shall be used for conducting the gas analysis requirements. 18.104.22.168 Performance Specifications. Each gas analyzer shall meet the following measurement system performance specifications: 22.214.171.124.1 Analyzer Calibration Error. Shall be less than ±2% of the span value for the high-range calibration gas used. 126.96.36.199.2 Sampling System Bias. Shall be less than ±3% of the span value for the high-range calibration gas used. 188.8.131.52.3 Zero Drift. Shall be less than ±2% of the high-range span value for the high-range calibration gas used. 184.108.40.206.4 Calibration Drift. Shall be less than ±2% of the high-range span value for the high-range calibration gas used. 220.127.116.11 Analytical Interference. The CO2 interference in the CO analyzer shall be determined by sampling high-range CO2 calibration gas through the CO analyzer. A calibration gas in the 10 to 12% range CO2, with 0.000% CO by volume shall not cause the CO analyzer to indicate a measurement of more than 0.20% CO. 18.104.22.168 CO2 Gas Analyzer Accuracy Limitation. Unless measurement of flue-gas CO2 and CO can be accomplished on a continuous basis at an accuracy of +/-100 parts per million (0.01%), this protocol can not be used to measure emissions and thermal efficiency of wood-burning fireplaces that produce less than an average of 0.50% total CO2 plus CO by volume in sampled flue gases during a test period performed as prescribed in this protocol. 4.4 Sampling Supplies and Reagents. 4.4.1 Calibration Gases. Calibration gases for each flue-gas constituent to be measured shall have concentrations at each of the nominal levels indicated in Table 4.4.1. Mixtures or combinations of calibration gases may be used in place of separate cylinders for each calibration constituent. Table 4.4.1 Nominal Calibrations-Gas Constituent Levels (Each Constituent may be in Separate or Combined Cylinders) Gas Level Concentrations (Volume Percent) Combustion Gas Analyzer CO2 O2 CO High 15-19 18-21 1.0-1.3 Mid 5-9 8-12 0.3-0.5 Zero 0 0 0 Note 1: All calibration gas mixtures shall be certified by the calibration gas supplier or the Northern Sonoma-APCD-approved test laboratory using the reference methods contained in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60, Appendix A: Methods 3 and 10. Note 2: NRe = Not Required. 4.4.2 Incinerator Performance Gases. Two gas mixtures are required for testing the destruction efficiency of the incinerator. Required constituents and their concentrations are presented in Table 4.4.2. Table 4.4.2 Incinerator Destruction Efficiency Performance-Gas Compositions and Concentrations. Gas Level Compositions (Volume Percent) Mid 0.1-0.3% CO; 0.1-0.3% CH4; Balance in CO2-Free Air Zero CO2-Free Air Note: The purpose of the incinerator check gases is not to validate the incinerator, but to check that it effectively oxidizes combustible gases, and to check that there is no residual CO2 being emitted from the oxidation of any carbonaceous matter lodged in the incinerator. The first of the two gas levels listed above is labeled ³Mid² because higher and lower actual combustible gas concentrations may be encountered. 4.4.3 Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride). Reagent Grade or better. (Report blanks for each supply batch.) 4.4.4 Methanol. Reagent Grade or better. (Report blanks for each supply batch. 4.4.5 Sample Filter. Type A/E glass-fiber filters rated at 99.9% removal of particulate matter „0.3 _m aerodynamic diameter: 102 mm diameter. 4.4.6 XAD-2 Sorbent Resin. The XAD-2 sorbent resin shall be Amberlite® or equivalent and shall not produce blank residues of 2.0 mg per 25 grams of XAD-2 when extracted in dichloromethane for 24 hours. 4.4.7 Gas Sample Bags. (See section 22.214.171.124.1) A gas sample bag (Tedlar® recommended) of 2 cubic-feet (50 liters) minimum size and equipped with a screw type inlet/outlet port valve. 4.4.8 Incinerator Catalyst. The incinerator catalyst shall be a 50/50 mixture of Englehard® #2253701 and #1243801 10-12 mesh catalyst beads or equivalent. 4.5 Calibration and Test Instrument Audit Requirements. 4.5.1 Scale. Within 3 hours before a test period, the scale used for weighing test-fuel charges shall be audited by weighing at least one calibration weight (Class F) that is in the range of 20 to 80% of the expected test-fuel charge weight. If the scale cannot reproduce the value of the calibration weight within 0.1 pound (0.05 kg), re-calibrate the scale before use with at least three calibration weights spanning the operational range of the scale. 4.5.2 Temperature Measurement Devices. Calibrate the temperature measurement devices before the first test period and semiannually thereafter. 4.5.3 Fuel Moisture Meter. Calibrate the fuel moisture meter in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions within 1 hour before measuring fuel moisture. 4.5.4 Anemometer. Calibrate the anemometer in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions before the first test period and semiannually thereafter. 4.5.5 Barometer. Calibrate the barometer against a mercury barometer before the first test period and semiannually thereafter. 4.5.6 Draft Gauge. Calibrate the draft gauge in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions before the first test period and semiannually thereafter. Note: An inclined liquid manometer does not require calibration but must be checked for level (zero tilt) before each test period. 4.5.7 Sample Gas Flow Meters. Sample gas flow meters shall be calibrated once before the first test period and semiannually thereafter or once after every 10 tests whichever occurs first. 4.6 Test Fireplace Preparations. 4.6.1 Fireplace Installation. The fireplace being tested must be constructed/installed, on site, in accordance with the designer¹s/manufacturer¹s written instructions. The chimney shall have a total vertical height above the hearth of not less than 15 feet (4.6 m). The fireplace flue/chimney exit to the atmosphere must be freely communicating with the fireplace combustion makeup-air source. There shall be no artificial atmospheric pressure differential imposed between the chimney exit to the atmosphere and the fireplace make-up air inlet. The flue/chimney configuration and grate height above hearth shall be noted for purposes of model line identification. 4.6.2 Primary Flue-Gas Sampling and Temperature Measurement Location. The probe is to be located near the center of the flue/chimney duct at an location which is at least 4.0 equivalent flue/chimney diameters (as calculated in accordance with Section 2.7) upstream from the flue exit to the atmosphere, or 8 feet (2.44m) above the floor/hearth of the firebox (i.e., hearth) whichever is lower. Exact probe location within this area of the flue is to be determined from the pre-test flue-gas stratification check conducted in accordance with Section 4.6.6. The location of the sampling probe must also be sited at least 4.0 equivalent flue/chimney diameters downstream of any flow disturbance such as a emissions control device, bend, expansion joint, smoke chamber, or visible flame that might exist in the flue duct locations identified above. The location of this particulate emissions and flue-gas sampling probe shall be known as the primary sampling location. A primary temperature probe is to be located within one equivalent flue/chimney diameter of the primary sampling location. The primary temperature probe may be located in the primary sampling location cross-section if the temperature probe structure does not interfere with the sample stream flow at or near the particulate sample probe intake. Temperature readings taken from this location will be referred to as primary temperature readings. 4.6.3 Thermal Efficiency Temperature Measurement Location. A thermal efficiency temperature probe is to be located at the 8-foot (2.44m) level of the fireplace in order to obtain data which is representative of where the last possible thermal donation would occur in a standard 8-foot (2.44m) high room. This shall be referred to as the thermal efficiency temperature probe. It is conceivable and allowable that the primary temperature probe could be substituted for the thermal efficiency temperature probe when the primary sampling location is within one equivalent flue/chimney diameter of the 8 foot (2.44m) level in the flue exhaust duct. 4.6.4 Add-On Emissions Control Equipment. Add-on emissions control equipment is allowed with prior approval of the NSCAPCD. If a fireplace is equipped with an emissions control device which is located in the flue/chimney duct, downstream from the fireplace fire chamber (i.e., firebox), the primary ESS and thermal efficiency flue-gas sampling and temperature measurement locations shall be positioned immediately downstream from the emissions control device but not less than 6.0 effective flue diameters upstream from the flue exit to the atmosphere. A primary ESS and thermal efficiency flue-gas sampling and temperature measurement location positioned immediately downstream from an emissions control device shall meet the flue-gas stratification requirements of Section 4.6.6. 126.96.36.199 Secondary Temperature Measurement Location. A secondary temperature probe shall be required if the fireplace is equipped with an emissions control device located in the flue/chimney. This probe shall be positioned one equivalent flue/chimney diameter upstream from the flue-gas inlet to the emission control device. The distance from the fireplace hearth to this second flue-gas temperature probe shall not exceed 8 feet (2.44 m). This location shall be referred to as the secondary sampling location and these measurements shall be referred to as secondary temperature readings. 4.6.5 Fireplace Heat-Aging and Curing. A fireplace of any type shall be heat-aged before certification testing begins. The aging procedure shall be conducted and documented by the Northern Sonoma-APCD-accredited testing laboratory. 188.8.131.52 Catalyst- And/Or Add-On Emissions Control Device-Equipped Fireplaces. Operate a catalyst- and/or add-on emissions control-equipped fireplace using fuel described in Section 4.7 for at least 50 hours prior to conducting testing. Record and report the hours of operation, hourly catalyst exit temperatures, add-on emissions control equipment operating parameters, and the weight of all fuel burned during the heat-aging and curing period. 184.108.40.206 Non-Catalyst- And/Or Non-Add-On Emissions Control- Equipped Fireplaces. Operate the fireplace using the fuel described in Section 4.7 for at least 10 hours. Record and report the hours of operation and weight of all fuel burned during the aging and curing period. 4.6.6 Flue-Gas Stratification Check. During the last five hours of the heat-aging and curing period specified in Section 4.6.5, use the carbon dioxide analyzer and sampling system specified in Section 4.3.13 to determine whether flue gases become stratified in the flue/chimney cross-section at the ESS and thermal efficiency flue-gas sampling and temperature measurement location specified in Section 4.6. 220.127.116.11 Flue-Gas Stratification Procedure. Stratification of flue-gas carbon dioxide concentrations shall be determined by first sampling at the center of the flue/chimney for at least one minute and then moving the sampling probe to within 1 inch (25.4mm) of the flue chimney wall for an additional minute. This procedure is to be repeated on at least two traverses of the flue/chimney that are 90o from each other. Flue-gas carbon dioxide concentration changes of more than 15% (i.e., 15% of the carbon dioxide concentration measured when sampling at the center of the flue/chimney) when the sample probe is moved from the center of the flue/chimney to within 1 inch (25.4 mm) of the flue/chimney wall shall be considered stratified. 18.104.22.168 Flue-Gas Stratification Remedies. The presence of a stratified flue-gas flow regime at the flue/chimney sampling location shall be remedied by either changing the flue/chimney duct design or changing the flue-gas sampling and temperature measurement probes to ones that equally and simultaneously sample the flue-gases and temperatures in the center of at least 4 separate and equal areas of the flue/chimney cross-section. 4.7 Test Fuel. Test fuel pieces shall consist of air-dried Douglas fir 3_ x 3_-inch (89 x 89-mm) and 3_ x 2-inch (89 x 51-mm) actual-dimensioned lumber. Fuel pieces shall not be less than _ nor more than 5/6 of the length of the average fire chamber width or not more than 1.5 times the average grate width if a grate is used in the firebox. The moisture content of each piece of fuel, as measured at a depth of one inch (25 mm), shall be in the range of 16 to 20% wet basis (19 to 25% dry basis). 4.7.1 Test-Fuel Charges. The total wet weight of each pretest-fuel and test-fuel load shall be calculated by multiplying the useable firebox floor or hearth area (see definition in Section 2.26), in square feet, by 7.0 pounds per square foot (square meters of hearth area x 0.30 kg/m2). Three equal (±5%) test-fuel loads shall be prepared for each test-burn. 4.7.2 Test-Fuel Cribs. The pretest-fuel and test-fuel pieces specified in Section 4.7.1 shall be constructed into fuel-load ³cribs² utilizing _ x 1_-inch (19 x 38-mm) Douglas fir spacers. Spacer moisture content is not specified. Test-fuel cribs shall consist of at least two layers of fuel pieces with _-inch (19-mm) spacing between all fuel pieces. The bottom fuel-crib layer shall consist entirely of 3_ x 2-inch (89 x 51 mm) fuel pieces nailed parallel to each other with _-inch (19-mm) spacing between them and with their 3_-inch (89-mm) sides positioned vertically. The second, third, and higher fuel crib layers shall consist entirely of 3_ x 3_-inch (89 x 89-mm) fuel pieces nailed together with the same spacers as specified for the first crib layer. 4.7.3 Test-Fuel Crib Spacer Attachment. The _-inch (19-mm) spacing between the parallel pieces shall be made by nailing, with 18 gauge x 1_-inch finishing brads, _ x 1_ x 3_ -inch (19 x 38 x 89-mm) spacers flush with each end and on alternating facing sides of each fuel piece. No spacers are to be attached to fuel piece faces located on the outer faces of the fuel crib. Spacing between fuel crib layers shall also be accomplished by nailing, with 18 gauge x 1_-inch finishing brads, one crib-depth (front-to-back) length of the _ x 1_ -inch (19 x 38-mm) spacer wood flush with each end and on the bottom of each of the next highest crib layers. 4.7.4 Kindling. Fifty percent of the kindling fuel weight shall consist of Douglas fir _ x 1_-inch (19 x 38-mm) and 50% of Douglas fir _ x _-inch (19 x 19-mm) dimensional lumber. The moisture content of the kindling fuel is not specified. The pretest-fuelinitial fuel load of each three fuel-load test-burn period mayshall be ignited using a kindling-fuel load which is not more than 25% of the first test-pretest-fuel load weight. If kindling is deemed necessary to initiate combustion of any of the three test-fuel cribs upon their introduction to the firebox, that kindling weight shall not be part of the test-fuel crib weight, but is in addition to it, and is used in calculating total fuel used in the test period. The first kindling-fuel load weight is not part of the initial test-fuel load weight but is in addition to it and is used in calculating total fuel used for the test period. 4.8 Pretest Preparations. 4.8.1 Fireplace Cooling Period. No fuel shall be burned in the test fireplace and no other means for heating the fireplace may be used within 8 hours preceding the start of a test period. No fuel shall be burned in the test fireplace and no other means for heating the fireplace may be used within the 8-hour period preceding test period initiation. 4.8.2 Pre-Test Flue-Gas Temperature Determination. At least one hour before initiating a test period (i.e., ignition of a fire in the fireplace), close all air supply controls and fireplace door(s). If the fireplace is not equipped with a door(s), use other means for closing the open face area of the fireplace. After one hour of closure and within 10.0 minutes of opening the fireplace for test-fire ignition, measure and record the pre-test flue-gas temperature at the thermal efficiency temperature location or the secondary sampling location whichever is closer to the hearth floor. 4.8.3 Fireplace Description. Record fireplace and, if equipped, catalyst and/or add-on emissions control device descriptions. The fireplace description shall include photographs showing all externally observable features and drawings showing all internal and external dimensions needed for fabrication and/or construction. The drawings must be verified as representing the fireplace being tested and signed by an authorized representative of the Northern Sonoma-APCD-accredited testing laboratory. 4.8.4 Test Fuel Description. Record test-fuel charge dimensions, moisture content, and weights. 4.8.5 Leak Checks. A pre-analysis leak check of the CO2 analyzer train is recommended to be performed within 2.0 hours before each test period initiation. A post-analysis leak check is mandatory at the conclusion of the sample analysis. 22.214.171.124 Leak-Check Procedure. Seal the sample inlet probe nozzle for each sampling system or train. Use the sample pump controls to create a vacuum greater than either twice the maximum vacuum encountered during test period sampling, or 5 inches (125 mm) of mercury, whichever is greater. Record the resulting sample flow rate indicated by the instrument flow meter when the required vacuum is achieved, corrected for system pressure, if applicable. 126.96.36.199 Leak Check Acceptance Criteria. If the vacuum leakage rate is found to be in excess of 2% of the average test-period sampling rate the test results shall be invalid. 4.8.6 Setting Sampling Flow Rates. Flow to the sub-sample gas bag shall be controlled by a fine-adjust needle-controlled flow valve. The sub-sampled flue-gas shall be pumped into the gas bag at a constant rate for all times when the ESS sample pump is on. The rate of flow into the bag shall be controlled by the fine-adjust metering needle-valve which is set during pretest preparation so that approximately 0.8 to 1.0 cubic feet (22.5 to 28.3 liters) of gas is collected at a constant rate over the entire test period without over-pressurizing the gas sample bag. Note: The ESS shall return its particle-free and dry exhaust gas to the flue via a _-inch (6 mm) Teflon® line and a 15-inch (380 mm) stainless-steel probe inserted into the flue downstream from the primary sampling location. 4.8.7 Sampling System Response Time. The response time is the amount of time it takes for sampled gases to travel from the end of each sample probe (in the flue/chimney) to the gas-sample bag. ESS and thermal efficiency sampling train flow rates shall be set in accordance with Section 4.8.6 within 2 hours before sampling system response times are measured. The determination of response times for ESS and thermal efficiency gas sampling trains shall be conducted before the first test period initiation and semiannually thereafter or at any time when sampling train flow control components are changed. 188.8.131.52 Response Time Procedure. During response time determination, the thermal efficiency air sampling system shall be operated at the ³normal² pre-test period sampling rate set in accordance with Section 4.8.6. The response times for the gas sampling systems (i.e., ESS and thermal efficiency) shall be determined by a step change in carbon dioxide concentration (e.g., from 0.0 to 20.0%) measured by a carbon dioxide analyzer located at the sample bag inlet ports for the air sample train. First, supply pure nitrogen (N2) calibration "zero gas" into the sample probe end of each sampling system until 0.0% carbon dioxide (CO2) is measured by the combustion gas analyzer. After 0.0% carbon dioxide is measured, switch the probe to the 20% carbon dioxide source and concurrently start timing the system response time. Response time is measured starting at the time the a sample probe is switched from the zero-carbon dioxide calibration gas to the 20% carbon dioxide gas and ending at the time the carbon dioxide analyzer reading is 18.0% (i.e., 90% of 20.0% carbon dioxide) in accordance with Section 2.19. 184.108.40.206 Response Time Limitations. Response times shall not exceed 1.5 minutes for the ESS flue-gas sub-sample system and 0.5 minutes for the thermal efficiency sampling train. 4.8.8 ESS Calibration and Pre-Test Set-Up. Prior to emissions testing, the ESS unit shall be prepared with a new, tared glass-fiber filter and a clean XAD-2 sorbent-resin cartridge. 220.127.116.11 XAD-2 Cartridge. Within 72 hours before each test period, the XAD-2 cartridge shall be processed as described in Section 18.104.22.168.3 for the determination of an XAD-2 resin blank. No XAD-2 resin blank that exceeds 2 mg per 25 gram batch of XAD-2 resin shall be used for any test. 22.214.171.124 Critical Orifice. The flow through a critical orifice can be affected by its temperature. Therefore, a temperature correction curve shall be developed for the ESS critical orifice. The curve shall plot temperature versus flow for at least 5 points within the temperature range, 50ºF to 120ºF (10ºC to 49ºC). The flow will be determined using a standardized volumetric bubble-type flow meter to within 0.0007 cubic feet (0.02 liters) per minute. 4.8.9 Room-Air Velocity. Using an anemometer, measure and record the room-air velocity within 2 feet (0.6 meters) of the test fireplace within 1 hour before test initiation. Air velocity within 2 feet (0.6 meters) of the test fireplace shall be less than 50 feet/minute (250 mm/second). No external means shall be used to affect air velocities within 2 feet (0.6 meters) of the test fireplace during a test period. 4.8.10 Test Facility Ambient Temperature Probe. Locate the test-facility ambient temperature probe on the horizontal plane that includes the primary air intake opening for the fireplace. Locate the temperature monitor probe at a distance of 3 to 6 feet (1.0 to 2.0 meters) from the front of the fireplace and in a 90º sector which is defined by lines drawn at ±45º from a perpendicular line to centerline of the fireplace face. 4.8.11 Barometric Pressure. Measure and record the barometric pressure within 1 hour before test period initiation. 4.8.12 Gas Sample-Bag Preparation. Fill each flue-gas sample bag with zero-air or nitrogen and then evacuate with a vacuum pump. If necessary, roll the bag up toward the inlet/outlet port-valve fitting from the opposite corner and complete the evacuation. 4.9 Fireplace Operation and Testing Protocol. 4.9.1 Required Fireplace Test Configurations. One, three four fuel-load test period consisting of one pretest-fuel crib, and three test-fuel cribs shall be conducted for each of the following fireplace operating configurations: … Door(s) closed, with hearth grate; _Door(s) open, with hearth grate; 126.96.36.199 No-Test Configurations. Where a masonry fireplace configuration is such that it cannot be tested under the configuration(s) set forth in this protocol the applicant may submit modification of this firing protocol to the NSCAPCD for approval prior to testing. Failure to obtain prior approval of an alternate firing protocol do so may shall result in rejection of test data and results derived under the modified protocol. 188.8.131.52 Closed-Door(s) Testing. For all closed-door test configurations, the fuel loading door(s) shall be closed within 5.0 minutes after the addition of the first test-fuel crib in a test period. During a test period, the fuel loading door(s) shall not be re-opened except during test-fuel reloading and adjustment as specified in Sections 4.9.10 and 4.9.11 of this protocol. 184.108.40.206 Additional Tests. The testing laboratory may conduct more than one test for each of the applicable configurations specified in Section 4.9.1. If more than one test is conducted for a specified configuration, the results from at least two thirds of the tests for that configuration shall be used for calculating the average emissions for that configuration. The measurement data and results of all tests conducted shall be reported regardless of which values are used in calculating the emissions for that configuration. 4.9.2 Test-Fuel Placement. All fireplaces shall be tested using a conventional fuel-load stacking configuration. For the purposes of this standard, ³conventional² shall be defined as the long axes of the fuel pieces/cribs having horizontal or approximately horizontal placement parallel to the hearth floor and the long axis of the hearth area when set upon the grate. The fuel loads are described in Section 4.7.2. The NSCAPCD shall not approve the testing of fireplaces using ³teepee² style fuel-load positions that do not physically force the end user to fuel the system in the same fashion. ing, alternating-layer crosshatch fuel-load positioning, nor kindling-on-top fuel-load positioning for ³top down² burning. 4.9.3 Pre-Test-Burn Ignition. Ignition of the pretest-fuel crib test load shall occur from below the fuel load and required hearth grate. The test burn shall be started only with matches (i.e., no charcoal-lighter, torches or other high temperature devices), with or without paper, and/or with or without kindling. If used, the weight of the starting paper shall not be included in test-fuel charge weight. The entire first test-fuel charge crib must shall be added and adjusted within 5.0 minutes after the CO+CO2 maximum value of the pretest-fuel crib has decreased by at least 80% but not more than 82 %. The CO+CO2 maximum value is the highest sum of concurrent flue-gas carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations achieved during combustion of a fuel crib. The CO+CO2 maximum value for the pretest-fuel crib shall be adjusted for ambient air baselines of CO and CO2 in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 4.9.10.after test initiation as described in Section 4.9.4. Note: Prior to fuel charge ignition in a masonry heater type of fireplace, it may be necessary to first establish an operational flue draft so that combustion gases exit properly through the convoluted venting path and out the chimney exit. Otherwise, initial firebox combustion gases might vent out the fuel-loading door or extinguish test fuel combustion. Establish sufficient operating draft by first heating the venting path with burning paper and/or kindling, so that flue draft is at least 0.02 inches of water column (5 Pa) measured at the 8-foot (2.44 meter) sampling level. The weight of paper used to initiate a draft for nominal fireplace operation are not considered part of the fuel load charges and are not included in total fuel weight determinations. 4.9.4 Sampling Test Period Initiation. Emissions and flue-gas sampling are shall be initiated within 15 seconds of the complete addition of the first test-fuel crib. after the kindling has been ignited and within 15 seconds of when flue-gas temperature at the center of the flue at the primary flue-gas sampling and measurement location, or the upstream flue-gas measurement location of an emissions control device reaches 25ƒF (14ƒC) greater than the pre-test flue-gas temperature. Once all test sampling and measurements have been initiated, all test sampling and measurements shall continue without interruption until the test is terminated in accordance with Section 4.9.14. 4.9.5 Test-Period Sampling, Parameter Measurements, and Data Recording Requirements. The following information shall be recorded for each test: Test-period starting time Test-period ending time Date Total length of sampling periods Fuel load data: Time Weight Moisture Once all test sampling and measurements have begun at test initiation in accordance with Section 4.9.4 (i.e., zero time), all test sampling, parameter measurement, and data recording requirements shall be conducted at each 5-minute interval and shall continue without interruption until the test is terminated in accordance with Section 4.9.14. Test-period sampling and measurement parameters shall include: ESS Oxygen (O2) Temperatures: Ambient Air ESS Critical Orifice Flue-Gas Incinerator Heated Sample Line (2) Heated ESS Filter Cooled XAD-2 Cartridge/Moisture Condensate Trap Sample Train/System Bag Filling Rates: ESS Sub-Sample Gas Bag Thermal efficiency-Incinerator Gas Bag Sample Train Vacuum: Across ESS Critical Orifice Thermal efficiency-Incinerator Draft Pressure at the Primary Sampling and Measurement Location 4.9.6 ESS Component Temperatures. During all test periods, the temperature of the following ESS components shall be controlled to the following specifications: 220.127.116.11 Probe and Sample Line Temperature. The stainless-steel probe and heated sample line shall be maintained in a temperature range from 225 to 300oF (107 to 149oC) during all sampling periods, 18.104.22.168 Filter Holder and Filter Temperature. The glass-fiber filter and its holder shall be maintained in a temperature range from 225 to 300oF (107 to 149oC) during all sampling periods, and 22.214.171.124 XAD-2 Cartridge and Condensate Trap. The XAD-2 cartridge and the condensate trap shall be maintained in a temperature range from 35 to 40oF (1.7 and 4.4oC) during all sampling periods. 4.9.7 Thermal Efficiency Sampling Train Component Temperatures. During all test periods, the temperature of the following thermal efficiency sampling train components shall be controlled to the following specifications: 126.96.36.199 Probe and Sample Line Temperature. The stainless-steel probe and heated sample line shall be maintained in a temperature range from 225 to 300oF (107 to 149oC) during all sampling periods and 188.8.131.52 Incinerator Temperature. The incinerator tube furnace shall be maintained in a temperature range from 850 to 1000oF (455 to 540oC) during all sampling periods. 4.9.8 Test Facility Ambient Temperatures. Test facility ambient temperatures shall be maintained between 65 and 95o F (18 and 32o C) during all test periods. 4.9.9 ESS Flue-Gas Sub-Sample and Incinerated Flue-Gas Sample Bag Filling Rates. The sampling rate into each gas-sample bag shall be constant throughout the test to within ±10% of the test-period average. From the beginning of a test period to the end, gas sampling rates shall be high enough to insure that the total volume of each collected sample is greater than 0.8 cubic feet (23 liters). If it turns out that the resulting flow rate is more than the desired bag-filling rate, vent the excess sample at a constant rate continuously during the entire test period, using a selector valve tee and control valve as shown in Figures 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11. 4.9.10 Test Fuel Additions. The second and , third and fourth test-fuel loads for a test-burn period shall be placed and burned in the fire chamber only shall be added and adjusted within 5.0 minutes after the CO+CO2 maximum value of the previous test-fuel crib has decreased by at least 80% but not more than 82 %. The CO+CO2 maximum value is the highest sum of concurrent flue-gas carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations achieved during combustion of either a test-fuel crib. after flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentrations, have decreased by at least 80% but not more than 82 % from the maximum flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration resulting from combustion of the previous test-fuel load. 0.05% shall be used as the baseline ambient air-supply carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration. The CO+CO2 maximum value maximum flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration measured in the flue gases during the burning of any fuel load shall be adjusted for the 0.05% carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration in the ambient air-supply. For example, if the measured flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration was 2.55%, the maximum flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration generated by the burning of the fuel was 2.50%: i.e., (2.55% - 0.05% = 2.50%). If the flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration generated by the burning of a precedent fuel load was 2.50%, the next fuel load may only be loaded after the measured flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration has returned to values equal to or between 0.50% [i.e., (((1 - 0.82) x 2.50) + 0.05) = 0.50%] and 0.55% [i.e., (((1 - 0.8) x 2.50) + 0.05) = 0.55%]. 18.104.22.168 Inadequate Coal Bed. If the coal bed remaining after the flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration has decreased 80% from the maximum flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration generated by combustion of the precedent fuel load, is not sufficient or adequate for restarting the next test-fuel load within 5.0 minutes after loading the test-fuel charge, newspaper and/or kindling may be added and the test-fuel load re-positioned in order to facilitate reasonable ignition of the added test-fuel load. The addition of all newspaper and/or kindling and the entire test-fuel charge including any additional newspaper and/or fuel added shall be completed within 5.0 minutes from the time the first piece of the test-fuel charge is loaded into the firebox. The weight of newspaper and/or kindling added shall be weighed to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg) and recorded. The weight of the newspaper and/or additional kindling added shall NOT be included in the total test-fuel weight for the test period. 4.9.11 Test-Fuel Charge Adjustments. Test-fuel charges may be adjusted (i.e., repositioned) once during the burning of each test-fuel charge. The time used to make this adjustment shall not exceed 15 seconds. 4.9.12 Combustion Air Supply Adjustment. Any means for controlling combustion air supplies may only be adjusted during the first 5.0 minutes after the addition of each test-fuel load. After the first 5.0 minutes, after the addition of each test-fuel charge, all air supply control settings must be set to the lowest level and shall remain at the lowest setting throughout the remaining burning time for each test-fuel load. Note: If a fireplace cannot or is not intended to operate at the lowest air supply settings, a permanent instruction label shall be prominently affixed to the fireplace air supply control mechanism. The label shall be affixed so that it is readily visible and readable to any person operating the controls. This instruction label shall state: "This air supply control must be set to the fully open position during all firing periods." 4.9.13 Auxiliary Fireplace Equipment Operation. Only auxiliary fireplace equipment permanently installed and integrated into the design and construction of a fireplace may be used to reduce emissions during a test period. Where incorporated, heat exchange blowers shall be operated during all test burns following the manufacturer¹s written instructions. If no manufacturer¹s written instructions are available, operate heat exchange blowers in their ³high² or maximum position. (Automatically operated blowers shall be operated as designed.) Shaker grates, catalyst, afterburner, or emissions control equipment by-pass mechanisms, or any other auxiliary equipment allowed under this section may be adjusted only once during the entire test period and the adjustment shall be in accordance with the manufacturer¹s written instructions. All operational adjustments made on a fireplace or the auxiliary equipment associated with the fireplace during the test period shall be recorded and reported. The total energy losses used to calculate thermal efficiency shall be increased by the amount of natural gas energy or electrical energy used by heat exchange blowers, afterburners, or emissions control equipment used during the test period. For purposes of reporting, thermal efficiency calculations shall reflect values with and without natural gas and electrical energy use. 4.9.14 Test Completion. A test (i.e., a three fuel-load test-burn period) is completed and all sampling and test-period measurements are stopped at the time the flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration decreased by at least 95% but not more than 97% from the maximum flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration resulting from combustion of the third test-fuel load. ß All temperature measurements and recordings shall stop at test completion. ß The ESS and thermal efficiency sampling systems shall continue operation after test completion for a period of time equal to the respective response times, as determined in Section 4.8.7, for each sampling train. 4.10 Post-Test Clean-Up and Sample Processing Procedures. 4.10.1 Room-Air Velocities. Using an anemometer, measure and record the room-air velocity within 2 feet (0.6 meters) of the test fireplace within 10 minutes after test completion. Air velocity within 2 feet (0.6 meters) of the test fireplace shall be less than 50 feet/minute (250 mm/second) without the fireplace operating. 4.10.2 Fuel Weight at Test Completion. Within 5 minutes after the test-burn is completed and all measurements and sampling has stopped, the remaining coals and/or unburned fuel, and ash shall be removed from the firebox and weighed to the nearest 0.1 pound (0.05 kg). (It is recommended that the coals first be extinguished with carbon dioxide.) The weight of these unburned materials and ash shall be subtracted from the total test-burn fuel weight when calculating the test period burn rate. A test-burn shall be invalid if less than 90% of the weight of the total test-fuel loads plus the kindling weight have been consumed during the entire test period. 4.10.3 Barometric Pressure at Test Completion. Measure and record the barometric pressure within 10 minutes after test period completion. 4.10.4 Leak Checks. Leak checks of the combustion gas analyzer systems shall be performed within 2.0 hours before gas bag analyses are performed. Leak checks shall be performed as follows as described in Section 4.8.5. 22.214.171.124 Leak Check Acceptance Criteria. Unless the leakage rate under the required vacuum is less than 2% of the average sample processing (i.e., analyzer flow) rate, analysis results shall be invalid. 4.10.5 ESS Processing Procedures. 126.96.36.199 Critical Orifice Flow Rate at Test Completion. Post-test-burn critical-orifice flow-rate determinations shall be performed before the ESS is dismantled for sample recovery and clean-up. Pre-test-burn and post-test-burn critical-orifice flow-rate measurements, after temperature correction is applied, shall be within 0.0007 cubic feet (0.02 liters) per minute of each other or the test-burn emissions results shall be invalid. 188.8.131.52 ESS Particulate Emissions Sample Preservation. If the ESS samples cannot be processed with two hours after test completion or if they are to be processed at an off-site laboratory the samples need to be preserved. Within 1 hour after testing is completed, the stainless steel sampling probe, Teflon® sampling line, filter holder, Tedlar® bag, and XAD-2 sorbent-resin cartridge(s) shall be removed and sealed. They shall then be placed in a container that maintains temperatures less than 50o F (10o C) before it is removed from the test site and transported to the laboratory for processing within 48 hours. 184.108.40.206 ESS Particulate Emissions Sample Processing. Each component of the ESS shall be processed as follows: 220.127.116.11.1 Desiccation and Weighing. The EPA Method 5 procedures (40 CFR Part 60 Appendix A) for desiccation and weighing time intervals shall be followed for all of the residues processed in Section 18.104.22.168 of this protocol. 22.214.171.124.2 Filter. The glass-fiber filter (4 inches (102 mm) in diameter) shall be removed from the ESS filter housing and placed in a petri dish for desiccation and gravimetric analysis. 126.96.36.199.3 XAD-2 Sorbent-Resin Cartridge. The contents of the XAD-2 sorbent-resin cartridge shall be extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with dichloromethane (methylene chloride) for 24 hours. The extraction solution shall be transferred to a tared glass beaker and evaporated in a drying chamber ventilated with filtered ambient air. The dried residue beaker shall then be desiccated to constant weight (i.e., less than ±0.5 mg change within a 2-hour period). The dry dichloromethane-extractable residues shall then be weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg. Blank values shall be determined for the amount of dichloromethane solvent used for extracting the ESS emissions residues and these blank values shall be subtracted from the total measured emissions residues. 188.8.131.52.4 ESS Hardware Clean-Up. All hardware components which are in the flue-gas sample stream (i.e., the stainless-steel probe, the sampling line, the filter holder, and all other Teflon® and stainless-steel fittings) through the top of the sorbent-resin cartridge, shall be cleaned with a solvent mixture of 50% dichloromethane and 50% methanol. The resulting dissolved emissions residues and cleaning solvent solutions shall be placed in tared glass beakers, evaporated in a drying chamber ventilated with filtered ambient air, desiccated to constant weight (i.e., less than ±0.5 mg change within a 2-hour period), and weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg. Blank values shall be determined for the amount of each solvent used for cleaning ESS components and these blank values shall be subtracted from the total measured emissions residues. 184.108.40.206 Minimum ESS Particulate Emissions Sample Quantities. For each complete test period, the ESS must catch a minimum total particulate material mass of at least 15 mg. Alternatively, the ESS must sample a minimum of 150 liters (5.3 cubic feet) of flue gases during each test-burn period. If this volume cannot be sampled in the test-burn time period, two ESS samplers must be utilized to sample fireplace emissions simultaneously during each test-burn. If emissions results from the two ESSs are different by more than 10% of the lower emissions-factor result, the test-burn results shall be invalid. An arithmetic average is calculated for test-burn results when two ESSs are utilized. 4.11 ESS (Direct) Flue-Gas and Incinerated Flue-Gas Sample Bag Processing And Analyses. 4.11.1 Combustion-Gas Analyzer Calibrations. To correct analytical accuracy and drift errors, combustion gas CO2 analyzers shall be calibrated using the following three-point calibration procedures before and after the analysis of samples for each test period. If at any time during the analysis procedures, a single-point audit fails (i.e., Section 4.11.5), the following multi-point calibration procedure shall be re-performed. 220.127.116.11 Set Up. Set up the CO2 analyzer train and allow the instrument to operate for a sufficient time to stabilize, as recommended by the manufacturer¹s recommended operating procedures. 18.104.22.168 Zero Analyzer. Introduce zero gas into the inlet at a ³normal² sample flow rate, and zero the analyzer output. Then introduce the high-level calibration gas and span the analyzer output. 22.214.171.124 Calibration Gases. Introduce consecutively, in the same manner as described in Section 126.96.36.199, the zero and mid-range calibration gases, and record the instrument response to each when no further change in the analyzer response can be detected. 188.8.131.52 Calculate and Plot. Calculate and plot a linear least-squares calibration curve, forcing the curve to pass through the origin. 4.11.2 Carbon Dioxide Concentration Measurements. Measure the CO2 concentration in each of the gas sample bags at least twice. After preparation of the combustion gas analyzer as described in Section 4.11.1, analyze the two flue-gas sample bags within 10 minutes. Next, re-zero each analyzer and re-analyze each gas-sample bag a second time. If the two measurements for each gas-sample bag agree to within the acceptance criteria presented in Table 4.11.2, the analysis is complete. If the two analyses for any one sample do not satisfy the acceptance criteria, again re-zero the analyzer and re-analyze the sample bags a third time using the same procedure. If, for each of the gas-sample bags, at least two of the three analyses satisfy the respective acceptance criterion, the analysis is complete. Table 4.11.2 Acceptance Criteria for CO2 Concentration Measurements. Sample Acceptance Criterion (percent of the paired-average value1) Incinerated Flue-Gas 3% Direct Flue-Gas 2% 1 For example, a paired set of direct flue-gas CO2 analyses which result in measurements of 9.9 and 10.1 mole-percent passes, and a paired set which results in measurements of 9.9 and 10.2 mole-percent, fails. Note: If the direct flue-gas CO2 concentration is between 100 and 102% of the incinerated flue-gas CO2 concentration, record all the actual measured values, but for subsequent calculations, use a direct flue-gas concentration that is 99% of the incinerated flue-gas value. 184.108.40.206 Acceptance Criteria. Use the average of the two analyses which fall within the acceptance criteria in all subsequent calculations. If, after three analyses, the acceptance criteria are still not met, efficiency results for the test period are not valid. Note: It is recommended that initial acceptance criteria checks be conducted prior to testing. If the inexactness of the measurement process results in a measured flue-gas CO2 concentration exceeding the measured incinerated flue-gas concentration by more than 2% of the incinerated flue-gas concentration value, efficiency results for the test period shall be invalid. 4.11.3 Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Analyses. After preparation of the combustion gas analyzer train as described in Section 4.11.1, analyze the ESS (Direct) flue-gas and the incinerated flue-gas sample bags within 5 minutes of each other. Measure the O2 and the CO concentrations at least twice. Record the results of each O2 and CO analysis and calculate O2 and CO averages for each sample bag. 4.11.4 Thermal Efficiency Flue-Gas Data Quality Requirements. Conformance with data quality criteria shall be required for validating thermal efficiency measurement results. Measurement values outside of the following indicated ranges shall be considered invalid for supporting fireplace approval applications: 0.03 % < CO2A % < 0.50 % 0 % < CO2A % < CO2FD % < CO2FI WHERE: CO2A = Ambient CO2, assume 0.05% CO2FD = Direct Flue-Gas CO2 CO2FI = Incinerated Flue-Gas CO2 4.11.5 Combustion Gas Analyzer Audits. Within 15 minutes of analyzing the flue-gas samples from a test period, zero and span the CO2, CO, and O2 analyzers with the zero- and high-range calibration gases. Then introduce the mid-range calibration gas. Using the most recent calibration curve for each analyzer, compare the measured concentration of each mid-range calibration gas to its actual concentration. If the values do not agree to within 5% of the average of their respective values, re-calibrate the analyzer, and conduct the analyzer audit procedure over again. 4.11.6 Sampling Rate Constancy. For each of the gas-sampling trains, calculate the average sampling rate during the entire test period from the data recorded as described in Section 4.9.5. Then calculate the percentage deviation of each recorded sampling rate from its test period average. The sampling rate is adequately constant and valid if the average magnitude of the deviations is less than 10% and if no single deviation is larger than 15%. 5.0 CALCULATIONS. 5.1 Emissions. After test completion, data sheets shall be reviewed for completeness and proper equipment operation. The data sheets, log books, and records maintained by field and laboratory staff shall be reviewed to ensure data quality and sample integrity. Test period data sheets shall be used in conjunction with ESS particulate samples and gas sample-bag analyses to calculate the emission rate and other fireplace operational parameters as presented below. 5.1.1 Total Test Period and Sampling Time. The total test period (ttt in minutes) is calculated using Equation 220.127.116.11 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168: (ttt) = (tc x NT>25ºF/CO2+CO>95%) WHERE: tc = The data-recording cycle (5.00 minutes for this protocol). N T>25ºF/CO2+CO>95%= The total number of whole 5-minute data-recording cycles that occurred between the time when the flue-gas temperature after test-burn ignition first exceeded 25EF (14EC) more than the pre-test flue-gas temperature (i.e., test period initiation as defined in Section 4.9.4) and the time when the flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentrations decreased by at least 95% but not more than 97% from the maximum flue-gas carbon dioxide plus carbon monoxide concentration resulting from the third test-fuel charge (i.e., test period completion as defined in Section 4.9.14). 5.1.2 Burn Rate. Burn rate (kg/hr) for the test period is calculated by Equation 22.214.171.124 as follows: Equation 126.96.36.199 WHERE: Total Fuel = The dry weight of the total fuel, including kindling, added during the entire test-burn period minus the remaining unburned materials and ash at the end of the test-burn period (kilograms). 5.1.3 ESS-Particulate Emission Factor. The equation for the total ESS-particulate emission factor (PEFESS) presented below produces reporting units of grams of emissions per dry kilogram of fuel burned (g/kg): Equation 188.8.131.52: WHERE: Pm = The total mass of particulate material caught on the filter, in the XAD-2 resin cartridge; and in the probe and ESS hardware clean-up and rinse solutions (grams). Sr = The average ESS-sampling rate for the total test period sampling time, is the average of all the temperature-corrected critical orifice flow rates for each 5-minute data-recording cycle for the total test period (liters per minute). Fmcc = The molar carbon content of the fuel (i.e., 42.5 gram moles of carbon per dry kilogram of fuel derived from the 51.0% carbon content of Douglas fir). Mvs = Molar volume of ideal gases at standard conditions (i.e., 24.06 cubic meters per kilogram-mole. YCO2-incinerated = The test period average of the molar fraction of carbon dioxide in the incinerated flue-gases (i.e., percent CO2 in the incinerated flue-gases divided by 100). Alternatively, the sum of the un-incinerated carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide divided by 100) 5.1.4 EPA Method-5H Particulate Emissions Factor Equivalents. ESS-particulate emissions factors (PEFESS) obtained in Section 184.108.40.206 above are converted to the U.S. EPA Method-5H emission factor equivalent results (PEFM-5) by using Equation 220.127.116.11.1 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168.1 5.1.5 EPA Method-5H Particulate Emissions Rate Equivalents. EPA Method-5H equivalent Particulate Emissions Rates (PERM-5 in g/hr) are calculated using Equation 22.214.171.124.1 as follows: Equation 126.96.36.199: PERM-5/Phase II = PEFM-5/Phase II x Burn Rate Where: PEFM-5 = The EPA Method-5H Equivalent Particulate Emissions Factor from Section 5.1.4 (gram/kilogram), and Burn Rate = Calculated burn rate from Section 5.1.2 (kilogram/hour). 5.1.64 CO Emissions Rate. The CO emissions rate is calculated using Equation 188.8.131.52.1 as follows: Equation 184.108.40.206 WHERE: COf = The molar fraction of CO measured in the flue-gas sample bag. Note: Percent CO divided by 100 gives the molar fraction of COf. Ff-g = The flue-gas "F" factor calculated using Equation 220.127.116.11 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168 1.1637 = kg of CO/cubic meter of CO = The gram molecular weight of carbon monoxide (i.e., 28) divided by the standard molar volume of 24.06 cubic meters per kilogram-mole of ideal gas at STP. 5.2 Thermal Efficiency. Thermal efficiency is not a required calculation for purposes of certification but may be derived as a result of this protocol. In the following calculations, retain at least one extra decimal place beyond that of the acquired data. Roundoff figures to significant digits after each final calculation. (Other forms of the following equations may be used as long as they provide equivalent results.) 5.2.1 Nomenclature For Thermal Efficiency Calculations. Cmf = Mass fraction of carbon in dry (zero moisture content) fuel; Use 0.510 for Douglas fir fuel (i.e., derived from the carbon molar fraction of Douglas fuel used by the U.S. EPA (i.e., 0.0425 kg-mole/kg x 12 kg/kg-mole = 0.510): 40CFR Part 60 Appendix A Methods 5H and 28). CFG = Average specific heat of dry flue-gas: kilojoule/kg-EK (Btu/lb-ER). CH2O = Specific heat of water vapor: 1.9 kilojoule/kg-EK (0.45 Btu/lb-ER). CO2DFG = Volume percent of CO2 in flue-gas sample: percent. CO2FI = Volume percent of CO2 in incinerated flue-gas sample, percent. ECL = Chemical energy loss, lower-heating-value-of-fuel basis: kilojoule (Btu). ELL = Latent energy loss, assuming complete combustion: kilojoule (Btu). ESL = Sensible energy loss: kilojoule (Btu). EW = Fuel (wood) chemical energy: kilojoule (Btu). EFC = Combustion efficiency: percent (reported to nearest 0.1percent). EFHT = Heat transfer efficiency (uncorrected for fireplace energy storage): percent (Reported to nearest 0.1%). EFOA = Overall thermal energy efficiency (uncorrected for fireplace energy storage): percent (Reported to nearest 0.1%). h = Enthalpy of water vaporization at room temperature: use 2442 kilojoule/kg (1050 Btu/lb). H = Mass fraction of hydrogen in dry (zero moisture content) fuel; use 0.0583 for Douglas fir fuel (the Total Combustible Carbon Method for Determination of Energy Efficiency of Wood-Fired Heaters; Federal Register, Volume 55, Number 161, Monday, August 20, 1990, page 33925-33935). HHVW = Higher heating value of the dry (wood) fuel: use 19,810 kilojoule/kg (8,516 Btu/lb). LHVCC = Lower heating value of carbon-containing combustible emissions; use 400,000 kilojoule/kg-mole of carbon (172,000 Btu/lb-mole of carbon). md = Mass of fuel load, dry basis: kg (lb); = mW / (1 + MCd). mH2O = Mass of water released and generated assuming wet fuel is completely oxidized: kg (lb). mFG = Total mass of dry flue-gas: kg (lb). Md = Flue-gas molecular weight: g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole). MFG = Mass of dry flue-gas: kg (lb). MCd = Moisture content of fuel, dry basis: percent. O2FI = Volume percent of oxygen in incinerated flue-gas sample: percent. P = Average heat output rate (power): kW (kilojoule/hour or Btu/hr). TA = Average ambient temperature: EK (ER). TFG = Average flue-gas temperature: EK (ER). Note: If no emission control device is installed as described in Section 22.214.171.124, use the average flue-gas temperature measured at the 8-foot level above the hearth. If an emissions control device is installed as described in Section 126.96.36.199 use the average flue-gas temperature of whichever location (i.e., upstream from the emissions control device or downstream from the emission control device) has the highest average flue-gas temperature during the test-burn period. 5.2.2 Fuel and Combustion Moisture. Calculate the total theoretical mass of water vapor released from fuel moisture and generated by the combustion of wood-based hydrogen during the test period (mH2O) (assuming complete combustion) using Equation 188.8.131.52 as follows: Equation 184.108.40.206 5.2.3 Flue-Gas Molecular Weight. Calculate the test-period average molecular weight of the dry flue-gas (Md) using Equation 220.127.116.11 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168 5.2.4 Flue-Gas Specific Heat. Calculate the test-period average flue-gas specific heat (CFG) in kj/kg EK using Equation 22.214.171.124 as follows: Equation 126.96.36.199 5.2.5 Mass of Dry Flue-Gas. Calculate the total mass of dry flue-gas (mFG) generated during the test period using Equation 188.8.131.52 as follows: Equation 184.108.40.206 5.2.6 Wood-Fuel Energy Input. Calculate the total wood-fuel energy input during the test period (EW) using Equation 220.127.116.11 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168 5.2.7 Latent Heat Losses. Calculate the total latent heat losses during the test period (ELL) using Equation 22.214.171.124 as follows: Equation 126.96.36.199 5.2.8 Sensible Heat Losses. Calculate the total sensible heat losses during the test period (ESL) using Equation 188.8.131.52 as follows: Equation 184.108.40.206 5.2.9 Chemical Energy Losses. Calculate the total chemical energy losses during the test period (ECL) using Equation 220.127.116.11 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168 5.2.10 Average Overall Thermal Efficiency. Calculate the average overall thermal efficiency for the test period (EFOA) using Equation 22.214.171.124 as follows: Equation 126.96.36.199 5.2.11 Average Combustion Efficiency. Calculate the average combustion efficiency for the test period (EFC) using Equation 188.8.131.52 as follows: Equation 184.108.40.206 5.2.12 Average Heat Transfer Efficiency. Calculate the average heat transfer efficiency for the test period (EFHT) using Equation 220.127.116.11 as follows: Equation 18.104.22.168 5.2.13 Average Heat Output Rate. Calculate the average heat output rate for the test period (power (P)) using Equation 22.214.171.124 as follows: Equation 126.96.36.199 6.0 REPORTING REQUIREMENTS. Submit both raw and reduced data for all fireplace tests conducted for Northern Sonoma-APCD approval. All test information and fireplace drawings submitted for Northern Sonoma-APCD-approval shall be verified and certified by the Northern Sonoma-APCD-accredited laboratory which performed the tests being submitted for Northern Sonoma-APCD-approval. Specific reporting requirements are as follows: 6.1 Fireplace Identification. Report fireplace identification information including manufacturer, model, model line, or design and serial number of the fireplace tested. Also include the published installation and operating instructions. 6.2 Test Facility Information. Report test facility location, temperature, and air velocity information. 6.3 Test Equipment Calibration and Audit Information. Report calibration and audit results for the test-fuel scale, test-fuel moisture meter, analytical balance, and sampling equipment including volume metering systems and flue-gas analyzers. 6.4 Pretest Information and Conditions. Report all pretest conditions including test-fuel charge weights, fireplace temperatures, and air supply settings. 6.5 Particulate Emissions Data. Report a summary of test results for all test-burns conducted and the arithmetically-averaged and thermal-efficiency- and burn rate-indexed emission rate for the test-burns used for Northern Sonoma-APCD-approval. Submit copies of all data sheets and other records collected during the testing. Submit examples of all calculations performed if not performed in the format presented in Section 5.0. 6.6 Required Test Report Information and Suggested Format. Test report information requirements are presented in the following recommended report format: 6.6.1 Introduction. 188.8.131.52 Purpose of Test. Northern Sonoma-APCD-approval or audit. 184.108.40.206 Fireplace Identification. Manufacturer, model name or number, catalytic/non-catalytic, emissions control equipment, and any optional equipment. Include a copy of fireplace installation and operation manuals. 220.127.116.11 The Northern Sonoma-APCD Laboratory That Performed The Testing. Name, location, and test personnel. 18.104.22.168 Test Information. Date fireplace was received, if factory-built, date construction was completed, if site-built, date that each test was conducted, sampling methods used, a description of each fireplace configuration tested as required in Section 4.9.1, and the number of test burns conducted for each fireplace configuration. 22.214.171.124 Test Method And/Or Fireplace Operating Protocol Deviations. The report shall contain a complete description of any test method or fireplace operating protocol deviation conducted in the performance of the required test procedures and protocols contained in this protocol. The report must provide detailed rationale explaining the necessity for the deviation(s) and a record of communications conducted for obtaining Northern Sonoma-APCD approval for the deviation(s) undertaken. 6.6.2 Summary and Discussion of Results. 126.96.36.199 Table of Results. Test-burn number, fireplace configuration, burn rate, particulate emission rate (in U.S. EPA Method 5H and thermal efficiency and burn-rate-indexed equivalents ESS Particulate emission rate), overall thermal efficiency (including combustion and heat transfer efficiencies), and averages (indicate which test-burns are included in the averages presented). An example test period summary table is presented in Figures 188.8.131.52a and 184.108.40.206b. Figure 220.127.116.11a ESS Emissions Results Manufacturer: Manufacturer Test Conducted By: Tester Test Run Number: # Test Period Start Date/Time: xx/xx/xxxx, xx:xx:xx AM/PM Test Period End Date/Time: xx/xx/xxxx, xx:xx:xx AM/PM Model Tested: Model Fireplace Type: Catalytic/Non-Catalytic Configuration: Door Open/Door Closed Time Average Thermal Performance Total Test Period xx.x Hours Combustion Efficiency xx% Heat Transfer Efficiency xx% ESS Settings Overall Thermal Efficiency xx% ESS Sampling Rate x.xx L/Minute Sample Cycle Duration x.x Minutes Average Temperatures Sample Time Per Sample Cycle xxx Seconds Flue-Gas Temperature (at 8 feet above hearth) xxx °F xxx °C Test Facility Ambient Temperature xxx °F xxx °C Fuel Total Fuel Used xx.x kg wet Particulate Emission (No Conversion) Average Fuel Moisture xx.x% Dry Basis Emission Factor xx.x G/kg Total Fuel Burned xx.x kg dry Emission Rate xx.x G/Hour Average Burn Rate During Fireplace Operation x.xx kg/hour (dry) Particulate Sample Breakdown Average Flue-Gas Concentrations Rinse xx.x% Oxygen (Gas Bag) xx.x% XAD-2 xx.x% Carbon Dioxide (Gas Bag) x.xxx% Filter xx.x% Carbon Monoxide (Gas Bag) x.xxx% Total 100% Carbon Dioxide (incinerated) x.xxx% Test Notes: Test Note Number 1: STP for this test is: 1.00 Atmosphere and 68°F (20°C) Figure 18.104.22.168b Run Number Configuration Burn Rate, kg/hour Particulate Emission Rate (Method 5H), g/hr Overall Thermal Efficiency, % 1 With Door Open x.xx xx.x xx 2 With Door Closed x.xx xx.x xx Averages x.xx xx.x xx 22.214.171.124 Summary of Other Data. Test facility conditions, surface temperature averages, catalyst temperature averages, test-fuel charge weights, and test-burn times. 126.96.36.199 Discussion. Include specific test-burn problems and solutions and rationale for, and for not testing specific configurations like an open-door configuration. 6.6.3 Process Description. 188.8.131.52 Fireplace Dimensions. Firebox height, width, length (or any other pertinent dimensions), weight, and hearth area used for calculating fuel-charge weight. 184.108.40.206 Firebox Internal Assembly Configuration. Including the laboratory-certified verification of the construction or assembly drawings, photographs showing air supply locations and operating mechanisms, combustion air supply pathway(s), refractory materials and dimensions, catalyst location, baffle and/or by-pass configurations and operating mechanisms. 220.127.116.11 Add-On Emissions Control Equipment. If the fireplace being submitted for Northern Sonoma-APCD approval utilizes add-on emissions control equipment or a catalytic device for reducing fireplace emissions, provide a complete description of each component including drawings, photographs, and materials used in its construction for production. 18.104.22.168 Fireplace Operation Procedures Utilized During Each Test Period. Air supply settings and adjustments, fuel-bed/coal-bed adjustments, and draft. 22.214.171.124 Test Fuel. Test fuel properties (moisture and temperature), test-fuel description (include drawings or photograph), and the test-fuel charge loading factor. 6.6.4 Sampling Locations. Describe sampling location relative to fireplace components. Include drawings and/or photographs. 6.6.5 Sampling and Analytical Procedures. 126.96.36.199 Sampling Methods. A brief reference to operational and sampling procedures, and optional and alternative procedures used. Include details of any parts of the procedures differing from the prescribed methods (e.g., Northern Sonoma-APCD approved alternatives). 188.8.131.52 Analytical Methods. A brief description of sample recovery and analysis procedures. 6.6.6 Quality Control and Quality Assurance (QC/QA) Procedures and Results. 184.108.40.206 Description of Calibration Procedures and Results. 220.127.116.11 Test Method Quality Control Procedures. This shall include leak-checks, volume-meter checks and sample-blank analyses. 6.6.7 Appendices. 18.104.22.168 Raw Data Results and Example Calculations. Include complete data tables and accompanying examples of all calculations not performed in the format presented in Section 5.0. 22.214.171.124 Raw Data. Include copies of all original data sheets for sampling records, parameter measurements, temperature records, and sample recovery. Include copies of all burn-rate and fireplace temperature data. 126.96.36.199 Construction/Assembly Drawings. Fireplace construction or assembly drawings which clearly show all dimensions as required by the NSCAPCD. 188.8.131.52 Sampling and Analytical Procedures. Include detailed description of procedures followed by laboratory personnel in conducting the certification tests being reported. 184.108.40.206 Calibration Results. Details of all calibrations, checks, and audits pertinent to the reported test results including dates. 220.127.116.11 Participants. Test personnel, manufacturer representatives, and regulatory observers present during testing. 18.104.22.168 Sampling and Operation Records. Copies of original records or logs of activities not included on raw data sheets (e.g., fireplace door-open times and durations). 22.214.171.124 Additional Information. Fireplace manufacturer's written instructions for operation of the fireplace during the reported test periods and any copies of the production-ready (print-ready) temporary and permanent labels required in by the NSCAPCD or Regulation 4. 126.96.36.199 Report Checklist. A checklist shall be completed to ensure that all applicable information is contained in the report. An example of the checklist is presented in Figure 188.8.131.52.1. The checklist must at least contain all of the items listed in this example. It must also ensure that it is checked prior to submission, with the applicable page numbers denoted. 6.6.8 References Cited in the Report. 1. Code of Federal Regulations, U.S. EPA Title 40, Part 60, Subpart AAA and Appendix A. 2. Barnett, S. G. and P. G. Fields, 1991, "In-Home Performance of Exempt Pellet Stoves in Medford, Oregon," prepared for U.S. Department of Energy, Oregon Department of Energy, Tennessee Valley Authority, and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, July 1991. 3. Barnett, S. G. and R. R. Roholt, 1990, "In-Home Performance of Certified Pellet Stoves in Medford and Klamath Falls, Oregon," prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, 1990. 4. Barnett, S. G., 1990, "Field Performance of Advanced Technology Woodstoves in Glens Falls, New York, 1988-1989," for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, U.S. EPA, Coalition of Northeastern Governors, Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory, and the Wood Heating Alliance, December 1989. Figure 184.108.40.206.1 Masonry Fireplace Test Protocol Reporting Requirements Checklist Manufacturer: Model: Tester: The first checkbox is to be filled out by the NSCAPCD. All other information is to be completed prior to submission of report. This checklist is to be supplied with the report. NSCAPCD Check Box Report Writer Check Box Found on Report Page Number Item INTRODUCTION Purpose of Test î î NCAPCD approval or audit Fireplace Identification î î Manufacturer î î Model name or number î î Catalytic/non-catalytic î î Emissions control equipment î î Any optional equipment î î Copy of installation and operation manual NSAPCD Laboratory That Performed the Testing î î Name î î Location î î Test personnel Test Information î î Date fireplace was received if factory built, date construction was completed if site built, date that each test was conducted î î Sampling methods used î î Description of each fireplace configuration tested î î Number of test burns conducted for each configuration Test Method And/or Fireplace Operating Protocol Deviations î î Detailed rationale explaining the necessity for the deviation î î Record of communication conducted for obtaining NSAPCD approval for deviation Figure 220.127.116.11.1 cont. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Table of Results î î Test burn number î î Fireplace configuration î î Burn rate î î Particulate emission rate (Method 5H and ESS) î î Overall thermal efficiency (combustion and heat transfer efficiencies) optional î î Averages indicate which test-burns are included) Summary of Other Data î î Test facility conditions î î Surface temperature averages î î Catalyst temperature averages î î Test-fuel charge weights î î Test-burn times Discussion î î Specific test-burn problems and solutions î î Rationale for and for not testing specific configurations PROCESS DESCRIPTION Fireplace Dimensions î î Firebox height î î Firebox width î î Firebox length î î Any other pertinent dimension î î Firebox weight î î Hearth area used for calculating fuel-charge weight Firebox Internal Assembly Configuration î î Laboratory verified construction or assembly drawings î î Photographs showing air supply locations and operating mechanisms î î Combustion air supply pathway(s) î î Refractory materials and dimensions î î Catalyst location î î Baffle and/or by-pass configurations and operating mechanisms Add-On Emissions Control Equipment î î Complete description of each component î î Drawings î î Photographs î î Materials of construction Figure 18.104.22.168.1 cont. Fireplace Operation Procedures Utilized During Each Test Period î î Air supply settings and adjustments î î Fuel-bed/coal bed adjustments î î Draft Test Fuel î î Moisture and temperature î î Test-fuel drawings or photographs î î Test-fuel charge loading factor SAMPLING LOCATIONS î î Location relative to fireplace contents î î Drawings and/or photographs SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES Sampling Methods î î Reference to operational and sampling procedures î î Reference to any optional and alternative procedures î î Include details of any parts of the procedures differing from the prescribed methods Analytical Methods î î Description of sample recovery and analysis procedures QC/QA PROCEDURES AND RESULTS Calibration Procedures and Results î î Description of calibration procedures and results Test Method Quality Control Procedures î î Leak check procedure î î Volume-meter check procedure î î Sample-blank analysis procedure APPENDICES Raw Data Results and Example Calculations î î Complete data tables î î Examples of all calculations not presented per protocol Raw Data î î Copies of original data sheets for sampling records î î Copies of original data sheets for parameter measurements î î Copies of original data sheets for temperature records î î Copies of original data sheets for sample recovery î î Copies of original data sheets for all burn rate and fireplace temperature data Figure 22.214.171.124.1 cont. Construction/Assembly Drawings î î Drawings which clearly show all dimensions as required Sampling and Analytical Procedures î î Detailed description of procedures Calibration Results î î Details of all calibrations, checks, and audits, including dates Participants î î Test personnel î î Manufacturer representatives î î Regulatory observers Sampling and Operation Records î î Copies of original records or logs of activities not included on raw data sheets Additional Information î î Fireplace manufacturer¹s written instructions for operation of the fireplace î î Copies of required labels
Back to Fireplace Emissions
Buckley Rumford Fireplaces
Copyright 1996 - 2002 Jim Buckley
All rights reserved.